10th class 7th unit

Answer the following questions.
1. What were the problems faced by Kalam in his childhood?
Answer. Abdul Kalam was separated from his Brahmin friends and was asked him to sit in the last row as he belonged to the Muslim community. When Kalam was invited for a meal to his science teacher, Mr. Iyer's house,lyer 's wife denied to serve him food as he belonged to a Muslim community. These were the problems faced by Kalam in his childhood.
2 _______that forced Samsuddin to look for a helping hand." What does 'that' refer to?
Answer. "That" refers to the state of emergency that was declared. With it the train that delivered the newspapers to Rameswaram did not halt at the station temporarily. This forced Kalam's cousin Samsuddin, who was a newspaper agent, to look for someone to catch the the newspaper bundle thrown from the running train.
3. "I filled the slot." What does the sentence mean?
Answer. The sentence means that Abdul Kalam was rightly chosen to catch the newspaper bundles thrown from the running train. He did it willingly.
4. If one wants to bring a change in the social system, what qualities should one possess?
Answer. If one wants to bring a change in the social system one should have courage,boldness, patience, bravery, determination and self-confidence.
5. Events from the Ramayana and from the life of the Prophet were the bedtime stories my mother and grandmother would tell the children in our family.
Choose the most appropriate meaning for the underlined phrase from the options given below.
a) stories told by the bed side
b) stories told on the bed
c) stories told before going to sleep
Answer. c) stories told before going to sleep
6. "Your children are not your children...." What does it mean? Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Give reasons.
Answer. It means that the children do not belong to the parents Parents are just a medium through whom the child is born into the universe.I agree with the statement .Every child has a unique thought process, unique talent and unique skill. The ideology to excel in a certain field just to fulfill the parents' desire, obviously collapses the purpose of the creation of that child. Thus the freedom to enable the children to create an individuality for themselves and to pursue their dreams should be given. No one should force their ideas on the children.
7. As children, none of us ever felt any difference amongst ourselves because of our religious differences and upbringing.
Choose the most appropriate meaning for the underlined word from the options given below.
A. Education
B. Cared and trained
C. Food and shelter
Answer. B. Cared and trained
8) Read the text and attribute the characteristics given in the box to the following women.conservative, sociable, kind, secular, generous, simple, tolerant, adamant, orthodoxa) Subramania lyer's wifeb) Ashiamma
Answer.a)Subramania lyer's wifeA. Conservative, Orthodox, Adamantb) AshiammaB. Sociable,kind,secular generous, simple,tolerant.
9. Identify the features of the text " My childhood".
1) Type of text
Answer. The text is an autobiographyi) Reflections on the textAnswer. The text speaks of the secularism, hospitality, equality and brotherhood enjoyed by Kalam, as well as the instances where Kalam was discriminated on the basis of religion and caste.
ii) Anecdotes in the textAnswer. The anecdotes in the text are Kalam earning money by selling tamarind seeds, Kalam catching the newspaper bundles from the running train, Kalam's family arranging boats for carrying idols during the annual Shri Sita Rama Kalyanam ceremony, the warning given by Lakshmana Sastry against the discrimination shown by the new Science teacher and the reformation in the thoughts of lyer sir's wife.
 Fill in the blanks with suitable words often confused given in brackets.
1. Samsuddin helped me earn my firstwages(wages/income).
2. He received a proportion of his income (wages/income) from selling tamarind seeds
3. He is ignorant (innocent/ ignorant) about technology.
4. However he was found innocent crime.(innocent/ ignorant) of any crime 
5. He lost all the wealth he had inherited (inherited/ acquired) from his father because he acquired
6. People from different backgrounds could mingle (mix/ mingle)easily. mixed (mixed/mingled) group of people do not come to an agreement. 
7. People in Rameshwaram were very rigid ( rigid/ adamant) in terms of segregation of different social groups. Subramania lyer adamantly adamantly) opposed it. (rigidly/stationary/
8. The car collided with a stationary(stationary/ stationery) vehicle when we were going to buy some stationery from the book stall.
9. She was enveloped (envelop/ envelope) in a huge white towel.
10. We sent an airmail envelope (envelop/envelope) abroad.
11. The floor was laid (laid/ lied) with a newspaper.
12. He lied (envelop/envelope) abroad.
II. Tick (✔) the appropriate meaning of the underlined word in each sentence below.
1. Kalam's father possessed great innate wisdom and a true generosity of spirit.
a) hospitality b) nobility c) kindness
Answer. Kindness
2. A sudden demand for tamarind seeds erupted in the market.
a) started b) came up c) appeared suddenly
Answer. appeared suddenly
3. Our family arranged boats for carrying idols of the Lord from the temple to the marriage site, situated in the middle of the pond.
a) place b) ceremony c) feast
Answer. Place 
4. The new teacher could not stomach a Hindu priest's son sitting with a Muslim boy.
a) imagine b)permit c)tolerate
Answer. Tolerate
5. He looked utterly downcast as I shifted to my seat in the last row.
a) lonely b) sad
Answer. Sad 
6. Sastry bluntly asked the teacher to either apologise or quit the school.c) disappointed
a) immediatelyb) angrily c) plainly
Answer. Plainly
7. The small society of Rameswaram was very rigid in terms of the segregation of different social groups.
a) strict b)firm c) strong
Answer. Strict
8.Sivasubramania lyer was notperturbed, nor did he get angry with his wife.
a) disturbed b) disappointed c) pleased
Answer. Disturbed 
9. India's freedom was imminent.a) expected b) necessary c) certain
Answer. CertainGrammarI. 
Read the following paragraph and note the underlined words.... 
On the whole, the small society of Rameswaram was very rigid in terms of the segregation of different social groups. However, my science teacher Sivasubramania lyer, though an orthodox Brahmin with a very conservative wife, was something of a rebel. He did his best to break social barriers so that people from varying backgrounds could mingle easily.Notice the underlined words or phrases in the above paragraph. They are called linkers or discourse markers. Noticing and understanding discourse markers help learners to understand the logical structure of what they read and listen to, the order of events and the attitude of the speaker or writer and what they refer to.Think of the following.
1) What makes the writer use the linker' on the whole' in the above paragraph? Give reasons.
2) What purpose does the linker 'however' serve in the paragraph?
3) What does the writer emphasize by using the linker' though'?
4) Why did the writer use the linkers?A. Here is a list of linkers. Some of them can be used synonymously. Refer to a dictionary and group them in the following table according to the function they perform in a sentence or discourse.
B. Fill in the blanks with appropriate choices from brackets.1. I don't want to go to a restaurant; Besides as a result), we can't afford it. (besides /2. A career in IT field is lucrative; at the same time (similarly/at the same time), it is stressful and it can even be harmful to one's health.
3. I understand your problems; however help you. (although/however), I can't
4. Transportation has developed a lot in India; likewise (likewise/whereas), the trade too has improved.
5. Some of the students scored low ranks in the exams;consequently(so that/consequently), the teacher arranged a series of remedial classes.C.
 Complete the following paragraph by choosing the appropriate linking words. next, for example, however,secondly, finally, thirdly
Linking words help us in many ways in writing. Forexample they help us in presenting our ideas in a meaningful way. Secondly they help us to introduce and develop the main idea of the paragraph. Thirdly they help us to illustrate and add supporting details. next, they help us in moving from one idea to another by binding one sentence with another. Finally they help us toD. Join the following sentences using the linkers given in brackets.1. There were freezing temperatures. They trekked for hours. (in spite of) Answers. In spite of freezing temperatures, they trekked for hours.2. It's an interesting city. We're going to visit it again. (such ... that) Answers. It's such an interesting city that we're going to visit it again.3. We booked a holiday. We had very little money. (although) Answers. Although we had very little money,we booked a holiday.4. The tour guide was informative. We didn't need to read our guidebook. (so... that)Answers. The tour guide was so informative that we didn't need to read our guidebook.5. He didn't like water. He booked a cruise. (In spite of the fact that) Answers. In spite of the fact that he didn't like water, he booked a cruise.6. Preachers preach many good things. Many of them do not practise what they preach. (though/eventhough)Answers. Even though preachers preach many good things, many of them do not practise what they preach.7. Jainulabdeen had no formal education and no wealth. (neither....nor) Answers. Jainulabdeen had neither formal education nor wealth.8. The continental dimensions of the country account for the variations and diversities. There are several religious sects and beliefs.(besides).Answers. The continental dimensions of the country account for the variations and diversities,besides, there are several religious sects and beliefsII. Passive voice without agent.Observe the following sentences taken from the text.I was born.Emergency was declared.I was asked to go and sit on the back benchYou might have learnt in your previous classes about active and passive voice constructions. Though the above sentences are in the passive, the agent is not mentioned.The agents are not mentioned in the following situations. When the agent is obviousWhen the agent is not knownWhen it is not desirable to reveal the identity of the agentPick out from the text some more passive constructions without agents and give reasons why the agent is not mentioned.1. All necessities were provided for, in terms of food, medicine or clothes. Here the agent is obvious that is the father provided all basic necessities2. I was asked to go and sit on the back bench. Here the agent is unimportant that is the action is more important than the doer3. Every child is born Here the agent is obvious that is the mother bears the child.4. India was forced to join the Allied Forces. Here the agent is unimportant. The action is important.5. A state of emergency was declared.It is not desirable to reveal the identity of the agent, as the action is more important than the doerEDITING Edit the following paragraph. It has some errors in the areas like punctuation, spelling, tense, prepositions, articles.he told me as if thinking aloud abul i know you have to go away to grow did the seagull not fly toward the son alone without a nest he quotes Khalil Gibran to my hesitant mother your children are not your children they are sons and daughters of lifes longing to itself they come to you but not from you you may give them love but not your thoughts for they have there own thoughtsAnswer. He told me as if thinking aloud, " Abul! I know you have to go away to grow. Does the seagull not fly across the sun, alone and without a nest ?." He quoted Khalil Gibran to my hesitant mother, "Your children are not your children. They are the sons and daughters of Life's longing for itself. They come through you but not from you. You may give them your love but not your thoughts, for they have their own thoughts." A Plea for India Unit- BAnswer the following questions.1. What do fights put us in?Answer. Fights put us in a difficult situation.They fill us with hatred, create enmity, cause communal intolerance and bring divisions in our country.2. Why does the poet use the expressions 'proud to be a strong nation' and 'hang heads in shame' at the same time?Answer. The poet uses both the expressions at the same time because our country is known for being united, despite the various diversities existent but sometimes there are communal riots and disputes which make us ashamed of ourselves.3. Who are cheats? Who are being cheated?Answer. The people who create communal violence are the cheats and the innocent people who are carried away by the false promises and diplomatic speeches are being cheated.4. What are the tasks to be finished according to the poet?Answer. According to the poet we have to concentrate on the tasks which would help our country develop economically,technically, industrially and intellectually utilizing the various natural resources available in our country.5. What is the central idea of the poem?Answer. The central idea of the poem is to remain united as a nation and to stand strong as a secular country with love and peace. Part-C Unity in Diversity in IndiaI. Answer the following questions.1. What do you understand by the expression' Unity in diversity'?Answer. The expression' Unity in diversity' means the bond of unity that exists among the Indians though they follow various cultures,traditions and speak different languages.2. Which aspect is Smith commenting on?Answer. Smith is commenting on the many features which differentiate India from the other regions of the world, wherein the feeling of unity which is common for every Indian in terms of human social and intellectual development is quite a distinguished feature.3. Pick out the factors that contribute to Unity in Diversity?Answer. The discovery of one in many, the individual in aggregate, the simple in composite, the superior interpretation, synthesis of power and mind that can give rise to the vision of the whole are the factors that contribute to unity in diversity in India. The rich Indian culture the heritage, customs, traditions,art and literature contribute to the unity of the nation.4. Why did the writer use the statement' It is a mere collection of separate people'. Give reasons.Answer. The writer uses the statement 'It is a mere collection of separate people to tell that the people of different cultures, traditions,languages and races come into a synthesis into one unit as Indians and remain united as Indians for the whole world to watch.5. 'Hindi is now understood and recognised as the national language of India'. Do you agree or disagree with the author? Give reasons.Answer. Yes, Hindi is considered as a lingua franca of India I agree with the author. As Hindi is spoken and understood by the majority of the population of India, it is recognized as the national language of India.VocabularyI. Read the following words / phrases and find the words/phrases from the text which convey the same meaning.1. myriad : many, veritable,numerous, several manifold2. synthesis: assimilate,combine, aggregate,unique bonds3. diversity : difference varied, separate,contrast4. dialects : local languages5. saints : sages,seers Yogis, Maharishis, spiritual leaders.II. Read the phrases and find the suitable words equivalent to them from the text.a) a part of country : regionb) try to do : desirec) develop quickly : Flourishd) behave in a particular way: emulatee) a very sad event : tragedy.